Below are the questions asked during the live event, along with their respective answers.

Q: In the test plan, what special instructions and changes might there be from a standard test?
A: Special instructions might include (but aren’t limited to): special operating modes, special setups if the setup in the standard cannot be met, an increased test level or frequency range, or a description of how to actually operate the EUT.

Q: What other modes of operating might be tested, other than stand-by, all actuators excited, and charging?
A: Additional operating modes may include specific emergency modes, specific electronic modes used while charging or during driving.

Q: What do you think the future holds for testing as far as regulations and test standards go?
A: The future most likely holds more thorough complexity.

Q: At the component level, does the DUT need to be tested at charging mode?
A: If the operation of the component changes with the operating mode, then the component device should be tested in each individual operating mode.

Q: EMC requirements for EV will be far stringent and costlier from gasoline vehicles, so, is the EMC community across globe optimizes this?
A: Test laboratories, both captive manufacturing laboratories and independent test laboratories alike are typically up to the challenge for increased test levels and complexity.

Q: You did not mention the ISO 7637 in your review, maybe you can say something about it and its importance for electric vehicles.
A: ISO 7637 series handles 12 and 24 volt electrical systems in vehicles. It includes both emissions and immunity/susceptibility component testing.

Q: Could you say something about EMC testing of electric vehicle charging stations? What standards are important for those?
A: The purpose of testing the vehicle charging stations is to protect the electrical grid and the surrounding environment. Test standards IEC 61851 series is dedicated to the testing of those charging systems.

Q: Any concerns with the magnetic field testing aspect of CISPR 36?
A: CISPR 36, as far as I know, is still in the development stages and was voted on back in April of this year. I have no further details at this time.

Q: Are you aware of standards covering conducted emissions, transient emissions, and transient immunity of the HV bus? Are these being adopted by manufacturers?
A: Manufacturers are adapting this testing for components for use on the HV bus of electric vehicles.

Q: What standard is applicable for battery safety compliance?
A: UL 2580, IEC 62660

Q: Do you think there will be a proliferation of test labs for automotive all over the world, given that EVs are expected to dominate the future?
A: From what we are seeing in the marketplace, laboratories, both captive and independent, are preparing for this increase in necessary capabilities.

Q: According to UN ECE No 10, while charging the vehicle, the antenna is put away from the vehicle with 2 m for immunity testing. Failure criteria is the movement of the vehicle. How does the antenna affect the vehicle in that way?
A: The antenna is used to radiate RF fields into the automobile. The 2-meter distance is an attempt to keep the antenna in the far-field and to expose the automobile to the widest field possible.

Q: In your experience, how good are Teslas in EMC safety perspective? Do you have first-hand knowledge of their standards?
A: I cannot comment on the manufacturer’s test standards, but if the Tesla automobiles are on the roads, they have been through thorough EMC testing.

Q: How could you test every EV, same issue with cell phone early testing. Don’t you need to test to a defined fixed range of levels?
A: Ideally, when changes are made or models include additional electronics or subsystems, they need to be tested for compliance. Every automobile won’t be tested, but every electronic option should.

Q: Transient Emission and Immunity complied ISO7637-2 for electronic sub-assembly. What about the road vehicles?
A: For Emissions, CISPR 25. For immunity, ISO 11451 series.

Q: I believe ISO7637-2 and -3 include transient emissions and immunity of LV bus (i.e. 12V battery). Are there sections of 7637 that also cover HV bus (i.e. traction battery?
A: Here are the different parts of ISO 7637:
ISO 7637-1:2015 – Definitions and general considerations
ISO 7637-2:2011 – Electrical transient conduction along supply lines only
ISO 7637-3:2016 – Electrical transient transmission by capacitive and inductive coupling via lines other than supply lines
ISO 7637-4:2020 – Electrical transient conduction along shielded high voltage supply lines only
ISO 7637-5:2016 – Enhanced definitions and verification methods for harmonization of pulse generators according to ISO 7637
ISO 7637 also includes limits for 24 VDC systems.

Q: How ready is AR for future testing standards?
A: AR designs systems based on customer requests, often including both older and the newest test standards. We have a presence on committees and working groups so we can both prepare for what’s coming and give opinions on the direction of test methodologies.

Q: Is it allowable to only perform ESA testing for vehicles or machines which are too large for chamber testing? For example large agricultural or construction equipment.
A: This depends on the approving bodies and acceptance standards. However, I do know that chambers exist to test large vehicles, including aircraft, in a semi-anechoic chamber.

Q: How much do you think simulation will play a role in future design/testing for emc?
A: I believe that simulation and incremental testing points are vital in the design process to ensure a smooth compliance testing program.

As far as simulation for compliance testing, that may be a stretch since simulations can only take us so far before empirical data is required